Tooth decay is a disease whose origin involves multiple factors simultaneously affecting the hard tissue of the teeth. A cavities can occur only when causative bacteria (mycoorganisms) congregate in the form of plaque on the surface of teeth in the presence of sugars (fermented carbohydrates forming the so-called “bacterial plaque”). The acid formed by the bacteria attacks the surface of the tooth, causing tissue destruction and forming cavities. Good brushing drags and eliminates plaque.
Dental plaque (dental biofilm) is the heterogeneous accumulation of a varied microbial community, aerobic and anaerobic, surrounded by an intercellular matrix of polymers of salivary and microbial origin. These microorganisms can be adhered or deposited on the walls of the teeth. Their presence may be associated with health, but if microorganisms get the substrates needed to survive and persist for a long time on the tooth surface, they can be organized and cause cavities, gingivitis or periodontal disease (gum disease). With a good brushing it is possible to easily remove said bacterial plaque.
Caries is a painless process at first until it reaches advanced stages, with involvement of the pulp or nerve. At first it is detected as spots or dark spots or as white-chalk areas. Other times there is some sensitivity to cold or heat or to sweet foods. Sometimes if the caries evolves very slowly, it can reach very advanced stages, with great affectation pulpar, without that there has never been pain. For all this it is necessary to make a review by your dentist every six or twelve months.
The treatment of caries depends on the evolutionary phase in which it is:
Surface caries (enamel or superficial dentin), which has no pulpal involvement, is treated by removing all diseased tissue (caries) and placing an aesthetic filling with composite material or resins or silver amalgam.
Deep caries with involvement of the pulp is treated with a root canal that consists of removing the pulp or “nerve” by thoroughly cleaning all affected tissue and sealing the canal with endodontic materials. When endodontic techniques can not be practiced the extraction of the piece will be the alternative.
Controlling foods rich in carbohydrates (sugars).
Perform a good brushing to remove bacterial plaque after each meal and especially before bed.
Maintain good oral hygiene.
Application of fluoride to increase the resistance of tooth enamel to acids that produce microbial plaque bacteria or biofilm.
Sealing of fissures placement by the dentist of a thin layer of fluoride-rich composite-based material in the deep grooves of the teeth.
Periodic reviews in which the dentist can perform a diagnosis and early treatment of incipient caries. In children every 6 months.
The brush head should be small for easy access to any area.
The material of the bristles have to be synthetic and their ends rounded so as not to traumatize the buccal tissues.
The bristles distributed in the head in 2 or 3 rows of longitudinal tufts. -The handle as straight as possible. -The hardness of the bristles should be soft or medium hard. -Renovate the brush periodically.
The teeth have to be brushed after each meal. It is very important to brush after having dinner. Do not forget the brushing of the tongue.
“Never go to bed without a good brushing”.
Always follow a pattern. For example, start brushing the buccal surface of the teeth (tooth area that contacts the cheek and lips) with a movement of the brush head from the gum to the edge of the tooth. Continue on the lingual and palatine face (the one that contacts the tongue). Finally brush the occlusal faces (the ones that are used for grinding). It is also necessary to pass the brush or lingual cleanser by the tongue.
It is recommended to use in patients with prosthesis or periodontal disease, to brush the interproximal space (space between two pieces and gum). It consists of a handle at the end of which there is a fiber trap, they can be of different sizes and shapes.
They are highly recommended for people with disabilities who have much difficulty using a normal brush. If it is used correctly we can achieve a good brushing similar to the manual technique.
It is a disease that progressively affects the supporting tissues of the tooth from the gums to the bone. It is the main cause of tooth loss. It is caused by microorganisms that normally inhabit our oral cavity (dental biofilm and tartar), causing an inflammation in the gums and slow and progressive destruction of the bone that supports our teeth.
In the early stages, the gums are red and bleeding. It is a reversible phase, there is no tissue destruction. (Phase gingivitis). If it is not solved in the gingivitis phase, periodontitis can affect the periodontal ligament (the union of the bone with the dental root), forming periodontal pockets and destruction of the bone and causing the loss of the tooth.
Pyorrhea is now known as “advanced periodontal disease” in its onset is manifested as gingivitis evolving if not treated at stages of destruction of the bone that supports the root of the tooth. It is characterized by bleeding or reddened gums, retraction of the gums, pain, mobility of the teeth, halitosis (bad breath), and in the final stages, pus and abscesses in the gums with pain.
Endodontics or root canal treatment is a dental therapy that involves removing the affected pulp or necrotic “nerve” from the diseased tooth. It is performed under local anesthesia, it is a painless treatment. The technique consists of introducing into the root canal a series of files of an increasingly larger diameter, removing all diseased tissue, and then introducing a material that seals the root canal. With this technique we achieved more than 90% success.
Of course, there is no age limit for the practice of orthodontics.
The only treatment limiting cause is the health status of the supporting tissue of the teeth.
The dental implant, is a generally titanium screw intended to be the artificial substitute for the root of a lost tooth. Usually it has a threaded shape and is made of biocompatible materials that do not produce a rejection reaction and allow its bonding to the bone. The surface of the implant can have different textures and coatings, usually used to increase its adhesion to the bone (osseointegration if titanium and biointegration if it is a ceramic material). After a period of time, the implant is integrated into the bone and becomes a secure anchor for a replacement dental piece, a fixed bridge pillar, or a removable dental prosthesis.
The implant is made of a biocompatible material (titanium). However, there is a remote possibility that you will not be osteointegre. Should this occur, the implant would be replaced with another implant. In expert hands today the success rate is higher than 95%, which allows us to say that this technique is safe and successful.